Pin Oak: quercus palustris
|Height: 60-70 ft
The name Pin Oak comes from the short tough branchlets along the branches and limbs.
Used for fence posts, fuel, and general construction.
Planted for ornamental use.
Fast growing and tolerant of most urban stresses.
Self-Pruning quality, reducing value in the lumber industry.
Norway Spruce: picea abies
|Height: Can grow over 100 ft tall
Longevity: Live over 100 years
Excellent timber tree because it grows so fast. 2-3 ft per year.
Most disease resistant spruce.
Early chewing gum was made from spruce resin
Was used in making World War II airplanes.
Colorado Blue Spruce: picea pungens
|Height: 65-115 ft
Longevity: Reaches ages of 600-800 years
Grows in relatively inaccessible locations leading to it not being commercially important as a timber species
Wood is suitable for posts poles and fuel.
Red Maple: acer rubrum Linnaeus
|Height: 60-90 ft
Longevity: 80-100 yrs
Brilliant autumnal foliage.
Maple is become more common as it reproduces well by seed and sprouts from the stump following a cut down.
Grows extremely rapidly
Fruit is a Samara, important for wildlife as it develops in the spring when other foods are not available.
SweetGum: liquidambar styraciflua
|Height: up to 100 ft in the wild. 33-50 ft in cultivation
Leaves are star shaped with five pointy lobes.
Sweetgums are aromatic, which means that they have a pleasant smell. Crushing up a leaf will give a good sense of this.
Sweetgum fruits are called gumballs.
The rosin (sap) was used as chewing gum by Native Americans.
Sweetgum is used for timber, furniture, cabinets, plywood, pulp, barrels, and boxes.
|Height: up to 25 ft
Crabapple are smaller than apples, and can be edible.
Fruit from some species is too sour or bitter to eat but used in making jelly.
Crabapples are native to cold and cool areas of Asia and Russia.
They arrived in the United States during the 18th century.
Korean cherry: prunus hybrid
|The Korean Cherry is a hybrid tree
Height: 35 ft
Longevity: 30-40 years
Flowers are sterile and therefore there is no fruit to drop on cars and driveways.
The tree often has surface roots that interfere with mowing.
Black Cherry: prunus serotine
|Height: Can grow up to 80 ft but usually small
Longevity: 80-100 yrs
Can grow in almost any soil
Can grow under taller trees as an understory tree.
Black cherry is a useful wood; it is used to make furniture, paneling, scientific instruments, and toys.
Jelly and wine are foods made from the black cherry.
Fruit is edible by humans.
Saucer Magnolia: magnolia x soulangeana
|Height: Grows to a height of 20-30 ft
Flowering tree and ornamental tree.
Can be trained to grow as a shrub
Has thin bark that is damaged by lawnmowers and weed cutters easily.
Hybrid cousin of Southern Magnolia.
Takes its name from its wide, saucer-like flowers.
Crimson King: acer platanoides
|Height: 35 to 45 ft
Leaves are large, growing up to 7 inches across.
Planted in most urban locations and parking lot islands.
Norway Maple: acer platanoides
|Height: 60-70 ft
Longevity:60 - 250 years
Introduced to the United States in 1756 as an ornamental plant.
Threat: Norway Maple have dense shallow roots and produce large amounts of shade that prevent grass from growing underneath. Sometimes roots will choke the parent tree. It out competes native vegetation.
It is highly tolerant of pollution.
The fruit are a pair of winged seeds called samaras or keys.
Is now an invasive species.
Shagbark Hickory: carya ovata
|Height: 60-80 ft tall
Longevity: Live up to 200 yrs.
Mature and produce seeds around 40 yrs old.
Andrew Jackson (seventh US president) was nicknamed “Old Hickory” because he was considered to be as tough as a hickory tree.
Used for tools and athletic goods. It is strong and has a high shock resistance. Very hard.
Native Americans used it as treatment for rheumatism.
Ash Tree: fraxinus
|Height: varies 30-120 ft
The leaves of the ash tree are compound; the leaves grow on a long stem that is attached to a twig.
The ash tree wood is used for baseball bats, tool handles, hockey sticks, canoe paddles, bowls, snowshoes, and guitar bodies.
Ash was used to construct carriages in the early 19th century
Early airplanes were made of ash.
In Norse mythology, the first man was created from an ash tree
Irish folklore claim that shadows cast on fields from ash trees would damage crops.
In England, some believe that Ash bark can cure warts.
The Emerald Ash Borer are a type of insect that are wiping out most of the ash trees in the United States.
Emerald Ash Borer Damage
|It attacks only ash trees.
Adult Beetles are metallic green and about 1/2-inch long and leave a D-shaped exit hole in the bark when they emerge in spring.
Woodpeckers like EAB larvae; heavy woodpecker damage on ash trees may be a sign of infestation.
It probably came from Asia in wood packing material.
Chestnut Oak: quercus prinus
|Height: 50-70 ft
Does not branch until 20-30 ft up the trunk
Used for fuel, fencing, and railroad ties.
The wood is used in floors because of its durability.
The acorns are an important source of food for wildlife.
Hackberry: celtis occidentalis L.
|Height: 50 ft
Native american tribes ground hackberries into a paste for roasting.
Is a butterfly host of the Leila hackberry butterfly and the Snout butterfly.
Boxelder: acer negundo
|Height: 30-80 ft
Longevity: 75-100 yrs
Native Americans used the tree sap
Native Americans used the tree to make musical instruments.
Gardeners plant rows of boxelder to server as wind barriers and screens in yards.
Fruit: large clusters of V-shaped samaras; will mature in the autumn
Wild grape: vitis vinifera
|Height: Climb over 30 ft tall
Can be found on stream banks, pond edges, roadsides, and in open woods.
Have large three lobed leaves with “teeth” on the edges
Wild grape grows large purplish-black berries in clusters of up to twenty.
Each berry contains two to six seeds. Animals help spread the vines by pooping out the seeds in new places after eating the fruit.
Spice bush: lindera benzoin
|Height: Small shrub that rarely grows over six feet tall.
Flowers are pale yellow and bloom in March and April
Fruit: shiny red berries called “Drupes”
Understory plant (meaning it grows under larger shrubs and trees)
Important host to butterflies in the swallowtail family.
Makes good cover for small animals such as chipmunks, rabbits, and squirrels.
Witch Hazel: hamamelis virginiana
Used for the treatment of hemorrhoids, inflammation of the mouth or throat, and conditions such as varicose veins, wounds, and burns.
Used to ease pain of sunburn, windburn, insect bites, poison ivy blisters, and sore sprained muscles.
The tannins and the volatile oils are the primary active ingredient in witch hazel.
Can also be used to treat bruises, cuts, and other skin abrasions.
Pignut Hickory: carya glabra
|Height: 50-60 ft
Occurs in most of the eastern United States.
Used for tools and athletic equipment.
Nuts are bitter and scarcely edible
Fruit: obovoid shaped, 1-2 inches long, with a husk that partially splits upon maturation. Nut is not ribbed, fairly round but flattened.
Sycamore: platanus occidentalis.
|Height: One of the largest hardwood trees Height: 60-100 ft tall sometimes larger
Large straight trunk
Fruits: “Buttonballs” One inch brown balls which hang on stalks. Often litter yards and sidewalks.
They become hallow as they get older.
Used for furniture, flooring, butchers’ blocks, particle board, boxes, crates, and baskets.
The seeds of sycamores called “achenes” can cause respiratory problems and skin irritation with some people.
Silver maple: acer saccharinum
|Height: up to 80 ft
Fruit: samaras, grow in pairs.
Soft wood, has cavities in the trunk where animals can live.
Grow quickly but are often damaged or knocked over by wind and ice
Used for paper and firewood. Can be used for controlling erosion.
Thornless Honeylocust: gleditsia triacanthos
|Height: 30-70 ft
Native from Pennsylvania to Nebraska and south to Texas.
Cherokees in Tennessee made bows from the tree’s durable and strong wood.
Used for fence posts.
Many regions in the south still refer to honeylocust as Confederate pin trees because those thorns were used to pin uniforms together during the Civil War.
Black Locust: robinia pseudoacacia
|Height: up to 80 ft
Spines are attached close to the leaves.
Fruit: Pods, brown 4 inches long, 14 seeds.
Host plant for Silver-spotted Skippers and clouded Sulphur butterflies.
Seeds are poisonous to humans.
Used for lumber, poles, fenceposts, boxes, paper, crates, pegs, stakes, and firewood.
Important plant for bee-keeping. Planted near hives so the bees can get nectar from the flowers and make honey.
Honey Locust: gledistia triacanthos
|Height: 66-100 feet
Longevity: 100-150 years
Has dark grey or black bark
Honey locust blooms in the spring. It produces scented creamy-colored flowers that attract insects responsible for the pollination.
The fruit of a Honey locust is an aromatic pod. The pods are an important source of food for the squirrels, raccoons, possums, and rabbits.
Smooth Sumac: rhus glabra
|Height: up to 10 ft
Leaves are bright red in the fall
Pioneer plant: it was one of the first plants to take over a field. Later taller trees will push it out.
The shrub may only live for a few years.
Sometimes considered a weed
Mulberry: morus moraceae
|Fruit: aggregate fruit
Fruit is used to make pies, jams and preserves.
Bradford pear: pyrus calleryana
|Height: 30-50 ft
Fruit: pear nut is not edible and does not attract squirrels or birds.
Short lived tree because they split easily
White birch: betula papyrifera
|Height: 70-80 ft
White bark and peels easily.
Paper birch is the first tree to grow back into places that have had a fire or where trees were cut.
Burns even when wet, used as a fire starter.
Native Americans used the bark to cover their canoes.
Native Americans used it to make baskets, baby carriers, mats, torches and moose calls.
It was also made into spears, bows, arrows, snowshoes, and sleds.
Syrup, wine, beer, and medicinal tonics are made from the sap.
White oak: quercus alba
|Height: 80-100 ft
Longevity: 500-600 yrs
Used for making furniture, flooring, and pallets, paneling, railroad ties, fenceposts, mine timbers, caskets, barrels, shingles, baskets, and firewood.
Has large pores, but plugged up by the resin.
Can be planted as a shade tree.
Black ash: fraxinus nigra
|Height: 60-70 ft
Wood easily splits into thin layers
Has been used for baskets
Carpenters can use the wood as interior finish
Bark is fissured into scaly plates, which can easily be reduced to powder by rubbing
Black Spruce: picea mariana
|Height: up to 66 ft
Carrier people used black spruce wood to make fish traps
Aboriginal people made snowshoe frames and drying racks.They also used powdered resin on wounds to speed healing
Preferred for paper products because of the long fibers.
Bark is thin
Found growing in colder climates
Purple Plumb: prunus cerasifera
|Height: 15-25 ft
Fruit: purple, one to three inch round drupes that attract birds, squirrels, and other mammals in the summer.
Needs maintenance because it tends to droop during the heavy rain until the leaves dry. Eventually it trains itself to droop even when dry when the rain is really bad. This causes an undesired weeping effect in the landscape that cannot be fixed without pruning.
Fruits are edible by humans
Used mainly as a shade tree
Dogwood: cornus florida
|Height: 20-30 ft
Used in the 19th century to make weaving shuttles for textile mills.
Used for golf club heads and chisel handles.
Extracts in the 19th century were used to treat malaria and canine manage, and extracts from the roots made a scarlet fabric dye.
The white petals of the dogwood flower are actually leaf-like growths called bracts.
Golden rain: koelreuteria paniculata
|Height: 25-35 ft
Native to eastern Asia
Late summer it produces millions of tiny yellow flowers in clusters on branch tips.
Generally a shade tree and popular for urban areas.
The seed production causes potential weediness in landscapes as the seedling sprout everywhere.
European Basswood: tila europaea
|Height: 140 ft
Heart shaped leaves
Yellow flowers are fragrant
Native Europeans used the inner bark fibers to make rope, thread, and a crude fabric more durable than hemp.
Bark was used to make durable bandages and mask making.
Sugar maple: acer saccharum
|Height: 60-80 ft
Longevity: 200 to 300 yrs
Maple syrup is made from the sap
Lumber used for furniture and bowling alleys.
It takes about 40 gallons of sap to make one gallon of maple syrup.
Leaves have five main lobes, notches between the lobes are moderately deep.
Zelkova elm: zelkova serrata
|Height 60-80 ft
Fruit: oval less than .5 inch, does not attract wildlife, not showy, not a litter problem
Branches do not droop; has thorns
Branches are often clumped together on the trunk at one point.
Needs to be prevented of planting in urban areas.
Red bud: cercis canadensis
|Height: 15-30 ft
Pink flowers that attract pollinators
Fruit: purple pod that changes to black. Up to 3 inches long. Contains small black seeds, food for deer and birds.
The tree is protected in Israel.
Flowers, buds and pods are edible.
Is often targeted by spiders, mites and tree hoppers.
American basswood: tila americana
|Height: 75-130 ft
Valued for hand carving
Inner bark can be used as a source of fiber for making rope or weaving items such as baskets and mats.
Flowers produce a ton of nectar that in turn is used to make honey.
Known in some places as the bee-tree.
Swamp white oak: quercus bicolor
|Height: 50-60 ft
Fall color leaves have an orangeish-gold to yellow in mid-autumn
Used as a landscaping tree
Leaves are broad ovoid
White pine: pinus strobus
|Height: 50-80 ft
In colonial days the best of the trees were set apart by the king for masts on British ships.
Lumber of white pines built our homes and businesses.
State tree of both Maine and Michigan.